The oral presentation is a verbal presentation to the class or to the teacher. In addition to the qualifications required for a written assignment, the oral presentation requires fluency in public speaking.
For many, the idea of speaking in front of an audience is an important source of stress. Careful preparation of the presentation will meet this challenge and make the presentation a success. The latter resides as much in the preparation of the written support as in the performance before an audience.
How to prepare for the presentation?
Make a plan
The oral presentation is subject to the same rules as the written statement. It includes an introduction, a development and a conclusion (see “How to write a text”).
The plan must be simple. Avoid wanting to say everything: three or four essential ideas are enough. Stick to the plan during the presentation.
Make notes for the presentation. Focus on fact sheets rather than sheets. About fifteen cards are enough for a 15 minutes presentation: a title card, a second for the introduction, a dozen for the development, a sheet or two for the conclusion.
Adapt your presentation to your audience
• Write short sentences.
• Do not copy or paraphrase texts.
• Define the technical words.
• Look for clear examples.
To manage time
• Comply with the time allowed.
• Provide a removable part: depending on the time available, add a part to the presentation or delete one. Practicing the presentation is the best way to check the timing.
• Remember that jitters speed up the flow.
Use visual aids
Here are some rules to follow regarding the use of visual aids.
Using the table
• Write difficult words and main ideas on the board.
• Avoid being long-backed to the audience.
• If possible, put the information on the board before the presentation.
• Treat calligraphy.
Presentation using PowerPoint software (or other computer means)
• Avoid overloading the screen. Present one idea per slide. Separate a complex element into multiple screens.
• Do not put a full text on screen. Use keywords rather than complete sentences. Avoid following multiple slides containing only text.
• Use sans-serif fonts for easy reading (eg, Arial). Use a size of 36 points for titles and 32 points for text on a computer screen.
• Choose a faint background for dark characters, a dark background for faint characters.
• Standardize the layout.
• Limit special effects so as not to distract the audience.
• Pay particular attention to maps, diagrams and graphs. Make legends, numbers, etc. legible
• Monitor the quality of the language: avoid spelling errors, anglicisms, colloquial language and buzzwords.
Repeat his presentation
• Train alone or with teammates for a group presentation.
• Monitor the pace: it must be neither too slow nor too fast. Breathe well.
• Speak loud enough. Vary the intonation of the voice. Articulate correctly.
• Check the timing so as not to exceed the time allotted for the presentation.
DURING THE PRESENTATION
To manage stress
• Stress is unavoidable, but it does not last if you are well prepared for the presentation.
• Show a smile.
• Breathe deeply. Slow down its flow.
Posture, look and voice
• Stand up, facing the audience. Use hands and arms to accompany the presentation. Move and move in a natural way.
• Watch the audience. Do not stop looking at one person, but also distribute it to the listeners. Avoid having your eyes fixed on your notes or on the screen.
• Make sure people sitting in the back of the room hear well.
Capture the attention
• Begin the presentation with a trigger: a shock sentence, a revealing statistic, a well-chosen quote.
• Announce the subject, present the objective, explain the plan of the presentation.
• Conclude briefly and dynamically: summarize the main points of the presentation, recall the guiding principle, that which the auditors must retain.
• Tell the audience that the presentation is over and the question period begins.
• Be brief and precise in his explanations. Do not hesitate to say that we do not know an answer.
• End the question period by thanking the audience.
The success of the team presentation is based on good planning and coordination. First, read the section “Working as a team”.
Before the presentation
• Involve all team members in the planning and presentation of the presentation.
• Distribute content elements among team members. Ensure that these elements form a whole. It must be avoided that the presentation becomes a juxtaposition of individual presentations.
• Plan at least one rehearsal with the material before the day of the talk.
During the presentation
• One of the team members coordinates the presentation by introducing teammates, introducing the topic and concluding the presentation.
• Another member of the team deals with the technical equipment.
• Avoid speaking out during a teammate’s presentation.
The evaluation, whether done by colleagues or by the teacher, is done according to two criteria:
• The background: mastery of the subject (relevance and coherence of information and ideas).
• Form: the ability to communicate information and ideas, the attitude and quality of the language.
To properly evaluate the presentation, the audience must:
• Listen carefully;
• participate if necessary;
• judge honestly.